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FEB 24    8 PM

Language serves as a communication system

Language serves as a communication system

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Join me next month for a new online lecture Transference & counter transference in therapy.

What is Transference?

Transference is a phenomenon in which the client inadvertently projects their feelings or emotions onto their therapist. Transference typically occurs at a subconscious level. The client may unconsciously exhibit specific behaviours or attitudes towards the therapist, treating them as a figure from their personal life. These transferred feelings can range from positive to negative. For instance, the therapist might inadvertently remind the client of their father, potentially triggering unresolved issues with him, which then get redirected to the therapist. There are also instances where the client forms an attachment to the therapist, perhaps because the therapist evokes memories of a school crush or a past romantic partner.


These manifestations can pose challenges, potentially impeding the progress of therapy rather than facilitating it. For instance, unresolved issues may lead the client to prematurely terminate a session, prompting the therapist to question the effectiveness of their practice. Nevertheless, it's worth noting that transference as a phenomenon is not inherently negative. It can be beneficial if it expedites the counselling process. For example, if the client had a warm and nurturing mother during childhood, who was emotionally available and provided a sense of nurture, they might unconsciously redirect similar emotions towards their therapist. In this way, it could accelerate the therapeutic journey.

Projection vs Transference

Projection and transference are two psychological phenomena that share similarities in the way individuals relate to others and interpret their own emotions and experiences. Both concepts involve a process where people unconsciously attribute their feelings, thoughts, or characteristics to someone else, often without realizing they are doing so.


Occurs when individuals project their own unresolved emotions, desires, or traits onto others, believing that these qualities belong to the other person rather than recognizing them within themselves. For example, someone who is feeling jealous may project their jealousy onto a friend, perceiving their friend as envious, even if there's no evidence to support this belief.


Typically occurs within a therapeutic context, such as psychoanalysis or counselling. It involves a client transferring emotions, expectations, or reactions from past significant relationships onto the therapist. This can lead to complex dynamics within the therapeutic relationship, as the client may react to the therapist as if they were a parent, sibling, or another important figure from their past.

Another concept akin to transference is that of introjection, a defence mechanism where an individual unwittingly absorbs the conduct and attitudes of others. For instance, a child experiencing bullying at school may subconsciously adopt similar cues and exhibit such behaviour at home. However, this behaviour may be directed towards someone weaker, such as their pet dog.


Countertransference is a phenomenon where the therapist unconsciously redirects their own emotions and feelings onto the client. It can occur when the client reminds the therapist of someone, evoking either positive or negative emotions. In either case, it has the potential to negatively impact the therapeutic relationship. For instance, if the client reminds the therapist of their father, with whom the therapist has had a strained or abusive relationship, this can lead to biased behaviour by the therapist, ultimately undermining the professionalism of the therapeutic relationship.

Freud’s Viewpoint

Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, viewed transference as a fundamental aspect of the therapeutic process. The concept of transference and countertransference was first discussed by Freud along with his colleague Joseph Breuer in their book "Studies of Hysteria" in 1895. Freud believed that these occur regularly in any therapy session.


He believed that patients would unconsciously transfer their feelings, desires, and conflicts onto the therapist, often projecting unresolved issues from their past onto them. Freud saw this as an opportunity for the therapist to gain insight into the patient's inner world. Countertransference, on the other hand, refers to the therapist's emotional reactions and biases triggered by the patient, which Freud believed could provide valuable information about the patient's dynamics. Freud considered managing and interpreting both transference and countertransference crucial in uncovering the patient's unconscious material and facilitating therapeutic progress.

Roger’s Viewpoint

Carl Rogers, a trailblazer in the field of Humanistic Psychology, maintained that both transference and countertransference constituted essential components of every counselling session. In his capacity as a person-centred therapist, he held the conviction that nurturing an authentic, empathetic, and genuine rapport with the client should stand as a fundamental objective within any therapeutic partnership.


Rogers believed that clients are more likely to open up, explore their inner thoughts and feelings and ultimately achieve meaningful change when they feel genuinely understood and accepted by their therapist. In essence, Rogers viewed the therapeutic relationship as a vehicle for personal transformation, and he considered transference and countertransference as valuable tools within the therapist-client connection to help individuals on their journey towards self-awareness and personal growth.

How to Avoid Transference and Countertransference in Therapy Setting

Self-awareness is paramount for therapists in preventing and addressing transference and countertransference. It involves constant introspection to recognise their own biases, emotional triggers, and personal reactions that may arise during therapy sessions. By actively exploring their emotional responses to clients, therapists can identify when transference might be occurring and take steps to address it. Seeking supervision or consultation with experienced colleagues or supervisors is another crucial strategy.


These discussions provide valuable insights into challenging cases, allowing therapists to gain perspectives on potential transference and countertransference dynamics that may be at play. Additionally, therapists should engage in ongoing professional development to stay updated on the latest research and best practices in psychotherapy, further enhancing their ability to recognise and manage these complex therapeutic dynamics.


In conclusion, the concepts of transference and countertransference represent the dynamic interplay of emotions within the therapeutic relationship. Transference, where clients project their feelings onto their therapists, and countertransference, where therapists respond with their own emotions, offer valuable insights into the human psyche. The lecture will delve deeper into recognising and managing these phenomena as they are crucial for fostering a healthy therapeutic alliance and achieving successful outcomes in psychotherapy. By understanding and navigating these complex emotional currents, both clients and therapists can work together toward personal growth, healing, and transformation.

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